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Amirchaghmaq

Masi 20 May

Based on history, the Amir Chaghmagh complex consists of following:

• Amirchaghmagh mosque

• Seti Fatima mausoleum

• Haji Ghambar bazaar

• Seti Fatima cistern

• Tekyeh cistern

• Palm

• Mirchaghmagh Tekyeh

Amirchaghmagh mosque Although

The Amirchaghmagh mosque is the oldest building of complex, remarkable Mirchakhmaq Takeyeh of east side caused that most unconscious visitor don't consider the mosque as a historical structure. It is called "the new Jamé mosque" was constructed by Amir Jalaledin Chaghmagh Shami and his wife, Seti Fatima, at 841 H (1462 AD). Jalaledin Chaghmaghi who was a warlord of Teimouri government was appointed as governor of Yazd since 811 or 812 H (1432 or 1433 D) again. He and his wife tried to improve the Yazd plentifully. They constructed various structures at different points including the Mirchaghmagh mosque and its related complex. Today, most of these structures are not left. Based on endowment document and historical book, the stated complex included school, monastery, bathroom, caravanserai, cistern, cool water mill, and bazaar. It is considerable that Panj Badgiri (five vents) cistern located on north side of square and Haji Ghanbar bazaar located on the east! Side of square don't involve the above complex and it has been constructed after Mirchaghmagh dead, although the mosque and Haji Ghanbar mosque historically is as the same. During constructing currently Mirchaghmagh mosque it was located on the south side of Mirchaghmagh square, out of city enclosure. It located next to a ward called Dahook. The nave located on south side of mosque including main courtyard in center and two porticos around it. The main courtyard and corridor was separated with two cells. The main altar of mosque worked arch corniced with mosaic tile and at the center of arch corniced there is a square-flower tile in which the Allah, Mohammad, and Ali was engraved four times repeatedly with kufi font.

A well-faceted marble installed in the altar and candelabrum and flower-bush drawing is engraved at its center. As other Islamic drawings the used drawing involves symbolic sign. For example, the candelabrum drawing is symbol of irradiation and lighting and ascension to heaven, flower and bush is symbol of life and eternity of afterlife. It referred to heaven place where human being evicted over there and yearn to return.

In the stone front لااله الاالله وحده لاشريك له له الملك وله الحمد وهو على كل شيء قدير

It was engraved and two lines of fourteenth silver candle were engraved underneath. It was written the 78 and 79th verse of Asrae sura with naskh font in corner of stone. Also there are four square flowers with kufi font in four angles of stone. It engraved سبحان حي الذي لايموت  at both upper cases and four names of Ali were engraved at both underneath cases. A small marble was installed in the left cell of nave in which there is candelabrum drawing. The terms such as Allah, Ali, and Mohammad were written repeatedly in its four corners. Also the 18th verse of Toubeh sura was written around it with Solth font.

Mosque dome is cracked and curve form and it was covered with green tile.  السلطان ظل الله  was written repeatedly around dome.

Two winter naves locate on north of mosque separated with entry corridor. Fragile meshes of mosaic tile have been installed over windows. As endowment document there is a stone board with Kufi font in hall located between two heating rooms and the 1120 H (1741 AD) was engraved on it. Mosque contains two transom. The small transom open to west heating room and an endowment document was engraved over its wooden door shows 972 (1593 AD). East transom opened to east portico contains a mosaic tiling engraving with Solth font. It elongates from right wall to left wall. Its calligrapher is Mohammad-ol-Hakim and the year 841 H (1462 AD) is written on it. There are drawings in various part of mosque and their coordination caused that visitor assume drawings as decorated figure. But if we behold more carefully, we will see that all drawings and lines are verses of Koran, Jalale (majesty) and Imam's names. For example, there are engravings upper entry transom in both sides of naves as follows: There is a square flower at right side underneath part in which Allah was written with Kufi font repeatedly. The terms اعوذ بالله من شیطان رجیم بسم الله رحمن الرحیم was engraved above Allah in a right line. The terms ومن الله توفیق was engraved on other square flower in right hand of upper part.

 In lower part at left hand, Mohammad word is engraved with kufi font in which twelve Imams name was written.

 In upper part at left hand, the 6th verse of Enfetar sura is written four times with kufi font. Also on corner of patio الحمد الله (thanks be to Gad) and سبحان الله (praise be to God) was written repeatedly with green tile.

Also the 18th verse of Toubeh sura was engraved under muezzin place above east transom.

2. Seti Fatima mausoleum:

 Seti Fatima Khtoun, AmirChakhmaq wife has been a benefactress. Her tomb located on north side of square in Shir Asodolah alley. Mausoleum structure was single room with cap dome which its vertex is covered with green tile. Internal cover consists of plaster and a few mosaic tiles are used in arch corniced.

3. Haji Ghanbar bazaar

It located in east side of square. Its constructer was Nezamodin Haji Ghanbar Jahanshahi, the governor of Yazd in Jahanshah Ghare Ghoyonlou period. He constructed it in 861 H (1482 AD).

4. Panj Badgiri

Cistern Due to neighboring with Seti Fatima mausoleum it is known as Seti Fatima cistern. It was constructed in Safavid era and located on north part of square.

To construct reservoir of cistern, the 7000m2 soil was excavated. It shows that how much this project was great.

As other cistern, this includes:

 Reservoir: its caliber is 19.5m and its capacity is 4000m2.

Dome: its height is 9m of floor.

Vent: this contains five octagonal vents which chill the water and ventilate the reservoir to prevent water corruption. Vent height is 11.15m. Every vent has sixteen blade which they totally consist the shelf.

Transom: it is considered as a guider for cistern and there is an endowment document place over it which we don't see it now. Stair: it contains 64 stairs concludes to tap area in basement. A place is advised to rest along stair.

Tap area: it is for water compilation located in basement

Unfortunately a new roof is constructed on the center of reservoir of cistern separated the dome and reservoir. After constructing stated roof, the upper half is used as Zoor Kané (a place for traditional exercise in Iran). Arena of force home is roof of cistern and it is against its founder and benefactor goal.

5. Tekyeh cistern:

 Tekyeh cistern is located under Tekyeh and Haji Ghanbar bazaar and it was constructed in Safavid era which the entry door is located on one of left cells of Husseinieh. There is a way between Tekyeh and Seti Fatima cistern.

6. Palm

Palm is a symbol of Imam Hussein Mahfeh. Yazd population performs the palm rising custom in some region yet. They try to decorate palm before Ashura and it continued many days

Firstly they decorated one side of palm with big and small mirror which it is symbol of lighting of Imam Hussein body. Other side was totally covered with black cloth which is symbol of sorrow, gloom, and mourning. Then hundred swords, machetes, and daggers hanged on black cloth. They are symbols of dart and wound in Imam Hussein body. Of course there are other decorations on swords such as a few big mirrors, Termeh shawl, pompom, and silken handkerchiefs which totally offer a special grandeur to palm.

At Ashura afternoon, twenty people mounts on palm to play the cymbal and to read Koran and lament, and then some people carry palm with bare foots. They upfold their pants leg to perform their task easily. Individual number depends on whether the palm is big, small or heavy. Sometime palm carriers are over 200-300 people. They carry palm along square frequently. Construction date of Mirchakhmaq square palm is not clear. However it is installed since 1229 H (1850 AD), because endowment date over black cloth is written 20th Rajab, 1229 (1850 AD).

 7. Mirchakhmaq Tekyeh

This great structure which most people consider it symbol of Yazd involves style of Takyeh of Yazd Husseinieh. Notwithstanding the public imagination it was not constructed by Mirchakhmaq. We see 1296 H (1917 AD) as construction date on a small Naskh font engraving set on cell roof. It shows that Mohammad Hassan and Mohammad Hussein were its architecture, although, based on a narration, it was constructed by investment of Haji Abolghasem Rashti, the famous Yazdi merchant, in the middle of 13th century H (20th century AD).

The center of structure is three storey and two laterals are two storey. Prophetic anecdote was written on pillar of the main pier with Kufi Banayee font in cerulean: God messenger (pbuh) said: ان الحسین مصباح الهدی و سفینه النجاه

Also the following clauses were engraved with green tile on upper cells of three storey located on two side of the main pier:

First storey: اللهم صل الحجه بن حسن العسگری

Second storey: اللهم صلی علی الحسن و الحسین سیدی شباب اهل جنه

Third storey:اللهم صل علی فاطمه الزهرا سیده النسا العالمین

Also at the upper left cell of second storey, It was written اللهم صل علی سیدالساجدین علی بن الحسین زین العابدین.

It is suggested that all of cells contained such clause and we don't see their sign currently.

 The الحمدالله and سبحان الله were repeated frequently in context. Also it is engraved the asami jalaleh (names of majesty) and prophet trait such as سیدالمرسلین, رحمت العالمین, خاتم العجمعین in two main pillar.

 

 Ghathed by:Mahdieh Jamshidi Goharrizi - Hamed Fatahi.

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